• education

    What is the Internet backbone?

  • education

    What is the Internet backbone?

  • education

    What is the Internet backbone?

  • education

    What is the Internet backbone?

The internet backbone refers to a set of communication networks that are under the management of a number of commercial companies,

which are responsible for the provision of chief high-speed links all over the country. The backbones are interconnected at different points of access that are identified as NAPS.

The Internet backbone is the physical network which is responsible for carrying the traffic of Internet between various networks. The measure used for it is mbps and it relies on fiber optic cable.

The Internet backbone could also be defined as an accumulation of numerous networks, routing facilities and servers which give a compound redundancy approach to providing data that is available and secure at all times online.

Visit The Mountains With The Best Ride | Buy Best Mountain Bike Under $500

The mountains are the best place for a holiday getaway. Their beauty, the peace, the fantastic sceneries, makes you forget all your worries and makes you tension-free. Don’t you feel the most relaxed when you in the mountainous region? Be it anywhere in the world, the mountains make you feel fresh, and the beauty becomes a part of you, and it stays with you for days even after you leave. It is that effective.

Most of you go to the mountains using cars or buses. It may be comfortable, but you don't know how to choose best mountain bike under 500$ budget. Some people choose to go walking or hiking but this may take a long time, and it seems almost impossible for you to reach your hotel. It may take days for you even to find a place to rest. There is a faster and easier way to enjoy the beauty of every part of the mountains, without also having to go by foot. You always have the option of using off-road cycles or mountain bikes.

What are mountain bikes?

A mountain bike is an off-road cycling bike that is designed for cycling through places other than roads, like hills, mountains, valleys, etc. Mountain bikes, abbreviated as MTB, have similarities with the other ordinary bicycles but are different at the same time. They include features that help and allow you to cycle through rough terrain.

The characteristics of mountain bikes enhance the performance and durability which significantly helps in moving along with the ups and downs of the mountainous regions. You must be thinking what the other features such bikes contain are. Several features will guarantee that mountain bikes are a viable option for those who like to travel through the mountains, wanting to see every portion of it in detail. They include-

1. Full suspension that helps you in climbing up the rocky and rough mountains plains.
2. Knobby tires that are considerable help you in easy travel
3. Durable wheels so that you don’t have to worry about getting them punctured mid-way.
4. More powerful brakes to help you make sudden brakes in the unpredictable and dangerous parts of the mountains, especially in the dark.
5. Handlebars that straight allows you to get more space to control your bike and it’s movement along the rough terrain.
6. Lower gear ratios that allow you to climb up the higher and steeper parts of the mountains.

Things you must check before buying mountain bikes

Mountain bikes come in different sizes, especially the wheels and tires. The type of wheel depends upon the kind of place you will be visiting. The typical features that a mountain bike has are wide knobby tires. Some mountain bikes contain wheels of 24 inches which are used for junior bikes or dirt jumping only. The widest wheels or tires are used by icebikers who ride their bikes at the time of winter, especially in snowy conditions.



It makes it possible for backup networks to relieve a failed network of its load or several failed networks. To the backbones, ISPs (Internet Service Provider) are connected either directly or to a bigger ISP that is linked to a backbone. The Internet backbone is comprised of a large assortment of interlinked commercial, government and education routes whose task is to transfer information across the country and internationally across continents. It consists of an assortment of networks. These networks interlink and could possess individual ISPs that serve as clients. Internet backbone has been perceived as the most important shaft of the World Wide Web. Data is carried by the Internet backbone in speed that is measured in gigabits per second. This in actual sense is the speed of light and to say that data is transmitted this fast means that data travels at the speed of light between computers that are connected by the same network. This is regardless of the destination and could be across the companies, countries or even oceans. With the increasing need for internet services as a source of information for many people Internet backbone has no alternative but to cater for these needs which include the necessity for new sites and more content on the new and existing sites. To this respect, Internet backbone has to be able to transmit loads of data through its pipes. The alternative will be a slow transmission and this would be inconveniencing since internet users value speed in connection. In addition the competence of companies and other institutions would be put at risk as such companies would probably require transferring immense quantities of data. It is factual to state that the internet has become the lifeline of majority of people and Internet backbone has enabled availability and security of data for internet users

The original concepts are in use even up to now.
The term ‘protocol is used in FTP, and by extension application layer, and refers to a set of guidelines that manage the exchange of information across computers.

It is the core definition and a major component in several terms that are ignored. Such terms include Internet Protocol (IP), Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and File Transfer Protocol or what we are calling FTP. IP is the ruling standard for communications over the internet.

HTTP on the other hand founded the point of reference for communication across computers on the internet and internet addresses.
FTP, as has been mentioned, lays down the rules for the movement of files from one computer to another. It was formulated to make this

process simple and to save the user from the task of having to learn the details of the procedure through which file transfer is accomplished.
The process is now hidden from the eyes of the user. Clicking the mouse begins a succession of actions that one might not understand.

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What Is Flashing Firmware?

The ROM module on a computer contains micro programs, which have low level software such as machine code and hexadecimal. These micro programs are referred to as firmware and their use is to enable the ROM and other devices that contain them to evaluate their abilities and make them useful. The data stored on the Read Only Memory is retained even when power goes off and it is therefore referred to as non-volatile information. The BIOS, which is contained on the system motherboard is an example of the most basic firmware. Apart from its use in enabling devices to ensure their capabilities are functional, firmware is also used in the coordination of hardware activities when the computer is operating normally. It has programming constructs that are used in the performance of these operations.


Firmware therefore gives users more flexibility as opposed to simply using pure hardware circuits. An example is in the use of the typical modem, where firmware plays a part in the establishment of the command set recognition and data rate of the modem. Flashing firmware, also known as flashing simply refers to the process of upgrading ones firmware. But not all firmware is upgradeable; there are some that are non-rewritable. But if the firmware is upgradeable, it can be upgraded by connecting the device on which it is contained to the computer in a distinct configuration and running software that the manufacturer provides. It becomes necessary to upgrade firmware in cases where a device is incompatible with operating systems that are newer or more recent. However, flashing firmware also improves the device performance.


Manufacturers of certain devices such as CD or DVD drives frequently release updates of their firmware which enables the drives read media that is written at higher speeds. Different manufacturers have different instructions for upgrading their firmware and it is essential to follow these instructions. You cannot use the instructions of particular software to upgrade the firmware of different software as this can destroy the devices on which the firmware is stored. This happens when one is upgrading the LG CD-Read Only Memory firmware. When doing this, the visual drive must be connected as the master used on IDE-1 cables. The master on IDE-0 cables must be the HDD. If the connection is not this way, then the ocular drive might become useless. It is also important to note that firmware upgrades might not be available for OEM upgrades and may only be produced for devices that the manufacturer produced.


What Is FCAPS?

In any organization, employees and clients rely on Information Technology services that guarantee performance and availability. The IT services should also be able to identify and resolve problems quickly. ISO Telecommunications Network for management has a framework and model known as FCAPS, which is the short form of Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance and Security it is used for network management. FCAPS are the categories that ISO model uses to define the management tasks in a network. The A in Accounting sometimes stands for Administration in organizations that are inherently non-billing.
The term FCAPS was first coined in the 1980s and was later refined in the 1990s in step with the recommendations made by TMN on Management functions (M.3400). FCAPS later became very useful in the teaching of functions of network managements. In Fault management which is a domain of FCAPS, all the problems in a network are discovered then corrected. In this level, the necessary steps are taken to make sure that the discovered and corrected problems do not occur not recur in the system again.

This really helps the network to remain operational for the entire time it will be needed. This domain helps to minimize downtime.
The next domain, Configuration management which is represented by letter C in FCAPS is what monitors and controls the day to day management. In this domain, all the changes related to programming and hardware is coordinated. Moreover, there is also coordination of the removal of outdated programs and systems and modification of current systems in this domain. It also coordinates new equipment and new programs.
Accounting management is the third category of FCAPS. In this category, total devotion is directed at distributing resources optimally between enterprise subscribers. This makes sure that the available systems are used effective which in turns helps in the minimizing of operational costs.
Many companies and organizations can greatly benefit from this.Performancemanagement which is the fourth domain deals with the management of the enterprise networks overall performance.

In this domain, there is maximization of throughput, identification of likely problems and the discovery of bottlenecks.
It is important to note that this is the domain where the improvements geared towards yielding great enhancement to the overall performance are discovered. Finally, the security management categories role is to ensure the network is no accessed by unauthorized users and does not succumb to electronic or physical sabotage.This category is also responsible for the authorization and authentication of users. User information is held in confidence in this domain as well.


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